Servlet interface

The javax.servlet.Servlet interface defines methods that all servlets must implement.

A servlet is a small Java program that runs within a Web server. Servlets receive and respond to requests from Web clients, usually across HTTP, the HyperText Transfer Protocol.

This interface defines methods to initialize a servlet, to service requests, and to remove a servlet from the server. These are known as life-cycle methods and are called in the following sequence:

  1. The servlet is constructed, then initialized with the init method
  2. Any calls from clients to the service method are handled.
  3. The servlet is taken out of service, then destroyed with the destroy method, then garbage collected and finalized.

Step 1 Create New Dynamic Web Project

Step 1.1 Create New Project

Go to File->New->Others… Select Dynamic Web Project under Web category then click Next. Type ServletDemo or whatever name you want in the Project name field.

Step 1.2 Configure Target Runtime

  • Click New Runtime… button under Target Runtime.
  • Select Apache Tomcat v7.0. Click Next.
  • Click Browse button to specify Tomcat Server installation directory. The select the folder then click Ok.
  • Click Installed JREs… button to add/remove or edit JRE definition. Remove existing one; then click Add button to configure new one. Select Standard VM; then click Next. Click Directory button to select the root folder of JDK installation. Select the folder then click Ok. Click Finish.
  • Check the JDK then click Ok.
  • Change JRE to the JDK then click Finish.
  • Click Finish the finish the project creation.

Step 2 Create Servlet Class

Write a java class that implement javax.servlet.Servlet interface.

  • Right click to the project, select New -> Class from the menu.
  • In Java package, enter info.java.tips.servlet.
  • In Class Name, enter BasicServlet or any name you want. The class name is unique in each package.
  • Click Finish.
  • Add implements Servlet to the class. You have to implement all methods of the interface.

Tips: you simply copy the above code; select the project or src folder then paste. Eclipse will automatically generate package & class file for you.  Press CTRL + S to save the file.

Step 3 Configuring Servlet

The web.xml file is located in the WEB-INF directory of your Web application.

The first entry, under the root servlet element in web.xml, defines a name for the servlet and specifies the compiled class that executes the servlet. The servlet element also contains definitions for initialization attributes and security roles for the servlet.

The second entry in web.xml, under the servlet-mapping element, defines the URL pattern that calls this servlet.

For each servlet, servlet-name must be the same for <servlet> & <servlet-mapping> elements.

Step 4 Clean & Build

Clean & build the project to clean old classes file (if any) & force the IDE to recompile java code.

  • Go to Project on menu bar; select Clean…
  • Select Clean all projects (default)
  • Click Ok to proceed clean & build.

Step 5 Configure Tomcat

Select Servers window; in case it’s not there, go to Windows -> Show View-> Others… Select Server -> Servers; then clickOk.

If this is the first time you are creating a server, in the Servers area you will see a link as No servers are available click this link to create a new server. Click the link.

Define a New Server window will be opened, In Select the server type. Select Apache -> Tomcat v7.0 Server. Then clickFinish.

Step 6 Deploy The Application

  • Right click to the Tomcat Server select Add and Remove.
  • Move the application (ServletDemo) from Available column to Configured. Then click on Finish to deploy it to tomcat server.

Step 7 Start Tomcat Server

Right click on the tomcat server and choose Start or simply click on the green start icon to start the server.

Step 8 Run The Servlet

We assume that you install tomcat on default port (8080) and project name is ServletDemo. Open web browser and type:

http://localhost:8080/ServletDemo/basicServlet

Output

Note: If you’ve already created a dynamic web project & tomcat server up & running. You can skip step 1 – create new project. And to deploy & run the servlet; follow the below steps:

  • Stop the tomcat server
  • Clean & build the project to re-compile the application
  • Start the tomcat server
  • Open web browser and run the URL.